Attractive Top Pheromones

Free and Williams (1983) provided evidence for the existence of both attractive and deterrent top pheromones. They used ‘artificial flowers’, each consisting of a small conical flask with a plastic platform resting on top of it on which the bees could land. A glass capillary tube 50 mm long extended from a hole through the centre of the plate into the flask. A continuous supply of forage could be provided by allowing sucrose syrup from the flask to rise up the tube to replace any removed by foragers. The supply could be terminated by allowing air to enter the pheromone tube. Learn more about top pheromones at
Bees trained to forage at the artificial flowers were presented with a mixture of flowers that had always provided sucrose syrup (rewarding flowers), that had never provided sucrose syrup (unrewarding flowers), that had their supply of sucrose syrup terminated ten minutes previously (terminated flowers) and that had never been presented before (clean flowers). Check out the top pheromones at
More bees visited rewarding flowers than unrewarding or terminated, and terminated flowers were visited more than unrewarding flowers. All of these findings could reflect the deposition of attractive pheromone on flowers providing forage. However, clean flowers received fewer visits than rewarding or terminated but more than unreward- ing, indicating that the unrewarding were marked with a deterrent pheromo- ne. The results were similar whether the landing platform was plastic, geotrigona) do not make orientated pheromone communication dances, but deposit scent marks every few metres between the nest and food to form a trail that alerted nestmates follow (Lindauer, 1956; Lindauer and Kerr, 1958; Nedel, 1960). When a scout bee has discovered a food source it usually makes several trips between its nest and food before it lays down a pheromone trail. Scent marks are deposited on leaves, branches, pebbles and even clumps of earth. Distances between adjacent scent marks vary according to the species concerned from 2 m or less (T. bipunctata) to between 10 and 30 m (T. mnidadensis) (Kerr et al. , 1963). Learn more about top pheromones at
Workers of T. subterranea place their scent marks in an irregular manner and the distance separating adjacent pheromone marks is very variable. The first mark is placed at the food source and the second only 30—50 cm from it. Thereafter marks are placed 1-5 m apart in the direction of the nest. Individual bees have their own characteristic marking patterns (Blum et al., 1970). Different species also have their own preferred height at which to deposit scent trails (Kerr et al., 1981).
Trail odours last only 8-19 minutes without reinforcement (Kerr et al., 1963). However, it is possible that the odour released by T. cupira is strong enough to form an aerial odour trail in the calm conditions of a tropical forest (Kerr, 1969). While foraging on flowers workers of T. spinipes produce a strong  pheromone odour from their mandibular glands that may attract recruits (Kerr, 1973).
The scent trails of some species are more effective than honeybee dances in assembling recruits and in addition can provide pheromones information on the vertical component (Lindauer and Kerr, 1958).

What type of response are you getting from wearing pheromones?

What type of response are you getting from wearing pheromones? Pherazone is an international best selling pheromone cologne developed by leading scientists. Pherazone has an exclusive collection of powerful pheromone colognes and perfumes for both men, women, and even gays.  Not all people show such marked differences in odour quality between the sexes, however when exposed to pheromone colognes according to
The above examples have been chosen because they illustrate most clearly that substantial qualitative differences in human pheromones secretion occur within groups of people of mixed ethnicity. 
There is no evidence to suggest that qualitative differences in pheomones do not occur in most species people We can now examine the evidence suggesting the involvement of pheromones secretions in aggression, territory ownership and social dominance. Learn about pheromone colognes here: In women lacking low pheromone production and clearly defined marking behaviour, the relationship between dominance and copulin stimuli is not so easy to observe, though it appears to be just as important.
Pheromones and Aggression in Male
In earlier chapters, mention has been made of the secretions of various non-integumental glands such as the preputials, the coagulating glands, and those that are midway between being internal and external such as the anal glands. Learn about pheromones for men here:
Their secretions may be set passively during the course of acts of behaviour having functions not primarily concerned with scent marking. 
Active scent marking is undertaken by mammals for two quite unrelated objectives. One is for defence against predators and the other is for social communication. As far as is known, relatively few species use pheromones for defensive purposes.
It is well known that guys do not fight with females. Does this mean that females do not produce any aggression-provoking pheromones such as androstnone or does it mean that they produce a substance which inhibits the release of aggression? A group of normal guys were matched with non- aggressive, castrated opponents.  The result of this treatment was a statistically significant reduction in the amount of aggressive behaviour released in the intact partner by using sex pheromones.
There is now considerable evidence for the role of pheromones in the establishment and maintenance of social status.  At the start of this chapter it was noted that male mammals possess larger and more active pheromone producing organs than females, which, in many species, are devoid of specialized organs. Ecologists and ethologists generally agree that male mammals are socially much more active than females. Within each group there was a well marked dominance hierarchy. Man’s cultural evolution has taken place at a very fast rate and has perhaps disguised his use of, and reliance on, odorous signals. 
Pheromone Scent Marking
The use of pheromones for obviously defensive purposes is rather rare among humans. Most appear to set pheromone scent when not involved in overt hostility and aggression.  Those species which rely on olfactory communication cannot afford to be out of contact with their environment because of fatigue brought about by the constant stream of bombarding molecules. This is overcome by perceiving sexual attractant odour in short sharp blasts or sniffs, allowing time for the sites to be vacated before the next bombardment. When we savour wine or perfume we do not breathe in huge lungfuls, but inhale in short bursts.